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This is an quick reference for the rules that power the world's most popular RPG system, published by Wizards of the Coast.
It's a handy player aid at the game table, but is not comprehensive. Refer to the rulebooks when learning the game, creating characters, or preparing an adventure.
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Actions in Combat
When you take your action on your turn, you can take one of the actions listed below, an action you gained from your class or a special feature, or an action that you improvise.
When you describe an action not detailed elsewhere in the rules, the GM tells you whether that action is possible and what kind of roll you need to make, if any, to determine success or failure.
Advantage & Disadvantage
Favorable conditions grant advantage, and unfavorable condtions impose disadvantage. Either can apply to ability checks, saving throws, or attack rolls.
Advantage. Roll a second d20 and use the higher number.
Disdvantage. Roll a second d20 and use the lower number.
Multiple conditions that grant advantage or disadvantage don’t stack. If circumstances grant both advantage and disadvantage, you have neither of them.
If something lets you reroll, reroll only one of the dice (of your choice).
|Abacus||2 gp||2 lb.|
|Acid (vial)||25 gp||1 lb.|
|Alchemist’s fire (flask)||50 gp||1 lb.|
|Arrows (20)||1 gp||1 lb.|
|Blowgun needles (50)||1 gp||1 lb.|
|Crossbow bolts (20)||1 gp||1. lb.|
|Sling bullets (20)||4 cp||1. lb.|
|Antitoxin (vial)||50 gp||—|
|Crystal||10 gp||1 lb.|
|Orb||20 gp||3 lb.|
|Rod||10 gp||2 lb.|
|Staff||5 gp||4 lb.|
|Wand||10 gp||1 lb.|
|Backpack||2 gp||5 lb.|
|Ball bearings (bag of 1,000)||1 gp||2 lb.|
|Barrel||2 gp||70 lb.|
|Basket||4 sp||2 lb.|
|Bedroll||1 gp||7 lb.|
|Blanket||5 sp||3 lb.|
|Block and tackle||1 gp||5 lb.|
|Book||25 gp||5 lb.|
|Bottle, glass||2 gp||2 lb.|
|Bucket||5 cp||2 lb.|
|Caltrops (bag of 20)||1 gp||2 lb.|
|Case, crossbow bolt||1 gp||1 lb.|
|Case, map or scroll||1 gp||1 lb.|
|Chain (10 feet)||5 gp||10 lb.|
|Chalk (1 piece)||1 cp||—|
|Chest||5 gp||25 lb.|
|Climber’s kit||25 gp||12 lb.|
|Clothes, common||5 sp||3 lb.|
|Clothes, costume||5 gp||4 lb.|
|Clothes, fine||15 gp||6 lb.|
|Clothes, traveler’s||2 gp||4 lb.|
|Component pouch||25 gp||2 lb.|
|Crowbar||2 gp||5 lb.|
|Sprig of mistletoe||1 gp||—|
|Wooden staff||5 gp||4 lb.|
|Yew wand||10 gp||1 lb.|
|Fishing tackle||1 gp||4 lb.|
|Flask or tankard||2 cp||1 lb.|
|Grappling hook||2 gp||4 lb.|
|Hammer||1 gp||3 lb.|
|Hammer, sledge||2 gp||10 lb.|
|Healer’s kit||5 gp||3 lb.|
|Amulet||5 gp||1 lb.|
|Reliquary||5 gp||2 lb.|
|Holy water (flask)||25 gp||1 lb.|
|Hourglass||25 gp||1 lb.|
|Hunting trap||5 gp||25 lb.|
|Ink (1 ounce bottle)||10 gp||—|
|Ink pen||2 cp||—|
|Jug or pitcher||2 cp||4 lb.|
|Ladder (10-foot)||1 sp||25 lb.|
|Lamp||5 sp||1 lb.|
|Lantern, bullseye||10 gp||2 lb.|
|Lantern, hooded||5 gp||2 lb.|
|Lock||10 gp||1 lb.|
|Magnifying glass||100 gp||—|
|Manacles||2 gp||6 lb.|
|Mess kit||2 sp||1 lb.|
|Mirror, steel||5 gp||½ lb.|
|Oil (flask)||1 sp||1 lb.|
|Paper (one sheet)||2 sp||—|
|Parchment (one sheet)||1 sp||—|
|Perfume (vial)||5 gp||—|
|Pick, miner’s||2 gp||10 lb.|
|Piton||5 cp||¼ lb.|
|Poison, basic (vial)||100 gp||—|
|Pole (10-foot)||5 cp||7 lb.|
|Pot, iron||2 gp||10 lb.|
|Potion of healing||50 gp||½ lb.|
|Pouch||5 sp||1 lb.|
|Quiver||1 gp||1 lb.|
|Ram, portable||4 gp||35 lb.|
|Rations (1 day)||5 sp||2 lb.|
|Robes||1 gp||4 lb.|
|Rope, hempen (50 feet)||1 gp||10 lb.|
|Rope, silk (50 feet)||10 gp||5 lb.|
|Sack||1 cp||½ lb.|
|Scale, merchant’s||5 gp||3 lb.|
|Sealing wax||5 sp||—|
|Shovel||2 gp||5 lb.|
|Signal whistle||5 cp||—|
|Signet ring||5 gp||—|
|Spellbook||50 gp||3 lb.|
|Spikes, iron (10)||1 gp||5 lb.|
|Spyglass||1,000 gp||1 lb.|
|Tent, two-person||2 gp||20 lb.|
|Tinderbox||5 sp||1 lb.|
|Torch||1 cp||1 lb.|
|Waterskin||2 sp||5 lb. (full)|
|Whetstone||1 cp||1 lb.|
Areas of Effect
Every area of effect has a point of origin, a location from which the spell’s energy erupts. The rules for each shape (below) specify how you position its point of origin. Typically, a point of origin is a point in space, but some spells have an area whose origin is a creature or an object.
A spell’s effect expands in straight lines from the point of origin. If no unblocked straight line extends from the point of origin to a location within the area of effect, that location isn’t included in the spell’s area. To block one of these imaginary lines, an obstruction must provide total cover.
Cone. A cone extends in a direction you choose from its point of origin. A cone’s width at a given point along its length is equal to that point’s distance from the point of origin. A cone’s area of effect specifies its maximum length.
A cone’s point of origin is not included in the cone’s area of effect, unless you decide otherwise.
Cube. You select a cube’s point of origin, which lies anywhere on a face of the cubic effect. The cube’s size is expressed as the length of each side.
A cube’s point of origin is not included in the cube’s area of effect, unless you decide otherwise.
Cylinder. A cylinder’s point of origin is the center of a circle of a particular radius, as given in the spell description. The circle must either be on the ground or at the height of the spell effect. The energy in a cylinder expands in straight lines from the point of origin to the perimeter of the circle, forming the base of the cylinder. The spell’s effect then shoots up from the base or down from the top, to a distance equal to the height of the cylinder.
A cylinder’s point of origin is included in the cylinder’s area of effect.
Line. A line extends from its point of origin in a straight path up to its length and covers an area defined by its width.
A line’s point of origin is not included in the line’s area of effect, unless you decide otherwise.
Sphere. You select a sphere’s point of origin, and the sphere extends outward from that point. The sphere’s size is expressed as a radius in feet that extends from the point.
A sphere’s point of origin is included in the sphere’s area of effect.
|Armor||Cost||Armor Class (AC)||Str||Stealth||Wt|
|Padded||5 gp||11 + Dex mod||—||Dis||8 lb.|
|Leather||10 gp||11 + Dex mod||—||—||10 lb.|
|Studded leather||45 gp||12 + Dex mod||—||—||13 lb.|
|Hide||10 gp||12 + Dex mod(max 2)||—||—||12 lb.|
|Chain shirt||50 gp||13 + Dex mod(max 2)||—||—||20 lb.|
|Scale mail||50 gp||14 + Dex mod(max 2)||—||Dis||45 lb.|
|Breastplate||400 gp||14 + Dex mod(max 2)||—||—||20 lb.|
|Half plate||750 gp||15 + Dex mod(max 2)||—||Dis||40 lb.|
|Ring mail||30 gp||14||—||Dis||40 lb.|
|Chain mail||75 gp||16||Str 13||Dis||55 lb.|
|Splint||200 gp||17||Str 15||Dis||60 lb.|
|Plate||1,500 gp||18||Str 15||Dis||65 lb.|
|Shield||10 gp||+2||—||—||6 lb.|
Armor Proficiency. If you wear armor that you lack proficiency with, you have disadvantage on any ability check, saving throw, or attack roll that involves Strength or Dexterity, and you can’t cast spells.
Strength. If the Armor table shows “Str 13” or “Str 15” in the Strength column for an armor type, the armor reduces the wearer’s speed by 10 feet unless the wearer has a Strength score equal to or higher than the listed score.
Stealth. If the Armor table shows “Dis” in the Stealth column, the wearer has disadvantage on Dexterity (Stealth) checks.
- Reach. Most creatures have a 5-foot reach and can thus attack targets within 5 feet of them when making a melee attack. Some weapons add to your reach.
- Long range. Your attack roll has disadvantage at long range.
- Close combat. You have disadvantage on ranged attack rolls if you are within 5 feet of a hostile creature who can see you and who isn’t incapacitated.
Rolling 1 or 20
- Natural 20. The attack is a critical hit regardless of any modifiers or the target’s AC.
- Natural 1. The attack misses regardless of any modifiers or the target’s AC.
A creature with blindsight can perceive its surroundings without relying on sight, within a specific radius. Creatures without eyes, such as oozes, and creatures with echolocation or heightened senses, such as bats and true dragons, have this sense.
You can take only one bonus action on your turn, so you must choose which bonus action to use when you have more than one available.
You choose when to take a bonus action during your turn, unless the bonus action’s timing is specified, and anything that deprives you of your ability to take actions also prevents you from taking a bonus action.
You can take a bonus action only when a special ability, spell, or other feature of the game states that you can do something as a bonus action. You otherwise don’t have a bonus action to take.
Cast a Spell
Most spells require a single action to cast, but some spells instead require a bonus action, a reaction, or much more time to cast.
Range. Most spells have ranges expressed in feet. Some spells can target only a creature (including you) that you touch. Spells that have a range of “self” affect only you.
Spells that create cones or lines of effect that originate from you also have a range of “self”, indicating that the origin point of the spell’s effect must be you.
Once a spell is cast, its effects aren’t limited by its range, unless the spell’s description says otherwise.
Components. If you can’t provide one or more of a spell’s components, you are unable to cast the spell.
Duration. A spell’s duration is the length of time the spell persists.
Targets. A typical spell requires you to pick one or more targets to be affected by the spell’s magic.
Areas of Effect. Some spells cover an area, allowing them to affect multiple creatures at once.
Saving Throws. Many spells specify that a target can make a saving throw to avoid some or all of a spell’s effects.
The DC to resist one of your spells equals 8 + your spellcasting ability modifier + your proficiency bonus + any special modifiers.
Attack Rolls. Some spells require the caster to make an attack roll to determine whether the spell effect hits the intended target. Your attack bonus with a spell attack equals your spellcasting ability modifier + your proficiency bonus.
Most spells that require attack rolls involve ranged attacks.
A Charisma check might arise when you try to influence or entertain others, when you try to make an impression or tell a convincing lie, or when you are navigating a tricky social situation.
Deception. Convincingly hide the truth, either verbally or through your actions. This can encompass everything from misleading others through ambiguity to telling outright lies. Examples include trying to fast-talk a guard, con a merchant, earn money through gambling, pass yourself off in a disguise, dull someone’s suspicions with false assurances, or maintain a straight face while telling a blatant lie.
Intimidation. Influence someone through overt threats, hostile actions, and physical violence. Examples include trying to pry information out of a prisoner, convincing street thugs to back down from a confrontation, or using the edge of a broken bottle to convince a sneering vizier to reconsider a decision.
Performance. Delight an audience with music, dance, acting, storytelling, or some other form of entertainment.
Persuasion. Influence someone or a group of people with tact, social graces, or good nature. Typically, you use persuasion when acting in good faith, to foster friendships, make cordial requests, or exhibit proper etiquette. Examples include convincing a chamberlain to let your party see the king, negotiating peace between warring tribes, or inspiring a crowd of townsfolk.
Other Charisma Checks. The GM might call for a Charisma check when you try to…
- Find the best person to talk to for news, rumors, and gossip
- Blend into a crowd to get the sense of key topics of conversation
- A charmed creature can’t attack the charmer or target the charmer with harmful abilities or magical effects.
- The charmer has advantage on any ability check to interact socially with the creature.
Ability & Skill Checks
The Order of Combat
Combat is organized into a cycle of rounds and turns.
- Determine surprise. The GM determines whether anyone involved in the combat encounter is surprised.
- Establish positions. The GM decides where all the characters and monsters are located.
- Roll initiative. Everyone involved in the combat encounter rolls initiative, determining the order of combatants’ turns.
- Take turns. Each participant in the battle takes a turn in initiative order.
- Begin the next round. When everyone involved in the combat has had a turn, the round ends. Repeat step 4 until the fighting stops.
A standard coin weighs about a third of an ounce, so fifty coins weigh a pound.
Standard Exchange Rates
Constitution checks are uncommon, and no skills apply to Constitution checks, because the endurance this ability represents is largely passive rather than involving a specific effort on the part of a character or monster. A Constitution check can model your attempt to push beyond normal limits, however.
The GM might call for a Constitution check when you try to…
- Hold your breath
- March or labor for hours without rest
- Go without sleep
- Survive without food or water
- Quaff an entire stein of ale in one go
|Backpack*||1 cubic foot/30 pounds of gear|
|Barrel||40 gallons liquid, 4 cubic feet solid|
|Basket||2 cubic feet/40 pounds of gear|
|Bottle||1½ pints liquid|
|Bucket||3 gallons liquid, ½ cubic foot solid|
|Chest||12 cubic feet/300 pounds of gear|
|Flask or tankard||1 pint liquid|
|Jug or pitcher||1 gallon liquid|
|Pot, iron||1 gallon liquid|
|Pouch||1/5 cubic foot/6 pounds of gear|
|Sack||1 cubic foot/30 pounds of gear|
|Vial||4 ounces liquid|
|Waterskin||4 pints liquid|
A contest occurs when opponents are trying to do the same thing and only one can succeed, or when one of them is trying to prevent the other one from accomplishing a goal.
Both participants in a contest make ability checks appropriate to their efforts. They apply all appropriate bonuses and penalties, but instead of comparing the total to a DC, they compare the totals of their two checks. The participant with the higher check total wins the contest.
If the contest results in a tie, the situation remains the same as it was before the contest. Thus, one contestant might win the contest by default. If two characters tie in a contest to snatch a ring off the floor, neither character grabs it. In a contest between a monster trying to open a door and an adventurer trying to keep the door closed, a tie means that the door remains shut.
There are three degrees of cover. If a target is behind multiple sources of cover, only the most protective degree of cover applies; the degrees aren’t added together.
Half cover. Grants a +2 bonus to AC and Dexterity saving throws. A target has half cover if an obstacle blocks at least half of its body. The obstacle might be a low wall, a large piece of furniture, a narrow tree trunk, or a creature, whether that creature is an enemy or a friend.
Three-quarters cover. Grants a +5 bonus to AC and Dexterity saving throws. A target has three-quarters cover if about three-quarters of it is covered by an obstacle. The obstacle might be a portcullis, an arrow slit, or a thick tree trunk.
Total cover. Prevents being targeted directly by an attack or a spell, although some spells can reach such a target by including it in an area of effect. A target has total cover if it is completely concealed by an obstacle.
When you score a critical hit, you get to roll extra dice for the attack’s damage against the target. Roll all of the attack’s damage dice twice and add them together. Then add any relevant modifiers as normal. To speed up play, you can roll all the damage dice at once.
For example, if you score a critical hit with a dagger, roll 2d4 for the damage, rather than 1d4, and then add your relevant ability modifier. If the attack involves other damage dice, such as from the rogue’s Sneak Attack feature, you roll those dice twice as well.
Damage and Healing
Whenever a creature takes damage, that damage is subtracted from its hit points. The loss of hit points has no effect on a creature’s capabilities until the creature drops to 0 hit points.
Healing. When a creature receives healing of any kind, hit points regained are added to its current hit points. A creature’s hit points can’t exceed its hit point maximum, so any hit points regained in excess of this number are lost.
Damage Types. Different attacks, damaging spells, and other harmful effects deal different types of damage. Damage types have no rules of their own, but other rules, such as damage resistance, rely on the types.
Damage Resistance and Vulnerability. If a creature or an object has resistance to a damage type, damage of that type is halved against it. If a creature or an object has vulnerability to a damage type, damage of that type is doubled against it.
Resistance and vulnerability are applied after all other modifiers to damage.
Multiple instances of resistance or vulnerability that affect the same damage type count as only one instance.
The damage types follow, with examples to help a GM assign a damage type to a new effect.
Acid. The corrosive spray of a black dragon’s breath and the dissolving enzymes secreted by a black pudding deal acid damage.
Bludgeoning. Blunt force attacks—hammers, falling, constriction, and the like—deal bludgeoning damage.
Cold. The infernal chill radiating from an ice devil’s spear and the frigid blast of a white dragon’s breath deal cold damage.
Fire. Red dragons breathe fire, and many spells conjure flames to deal fire damage.
Force. Force is pure magical energy focused into a damaging form. Most effects that deal force damage are spells, including magic missile and spiritual weapon.
Lightning. A lightning bolt spell and a blue dragon’s breath deal lightning damage.
Necrotic. Necrotic damage, dealt by certain undead and some spells, withers matter and even the soul.
Piercing. Puncturing and impaling attacks, including spears and monsters’ bites, deal piercing damage.
Poison. Venomous stings and the toxic gas of a green dragon’s breath deal poison damage.
Psychic. Mental abilities such as a mind flayer’s psionic blast deal psychic damage.
Radiant. Radiant damage, dealt by a cleric’s flame strike spell or an angel’s smiting weapon, sears the flesh like fire and overloads the spirit with power.
Slashing. Swords, axes, and monsters’ claws deal slashing damage.
Thunder. A concussive burst of sound, such as the effect of the thunderwave spell, deals thunder damage.
Within a specified range, a creature with darkvision can see in darkness as if the darkness were dim light, so areas of darkness are only lightly obscured as far as that creature is concerned. However, the creature can’t discern color in darkness, only shades of gray.
When you take the Dash action, you gain extra movement for the current turn. The increase equals your speed, after applying any modifiers. With a speed of 30 feet, for example, you can move up to 60 feet on your turn if you dash.
Any increase or decrease to your speed changes this additional movement by the same amount. If your speed of 30 feet is reduced to 15 feet, for instance, you can move up to 30 feet this turn if you dash.
A deafened creature can’t hear and automatically fails any ability check that requires hearing.
A Dexterity check can model any attempt to move nimbly, quickly, or quietly, or to keep from falling on tricky footing.
Acrobatics. Attempt to stay on your feet in a tricky situation, such as when you’re trying to run across a sheet of ice, balance on a tightrope, stay upright on a rocking ship’s deck, or perform acrobatic stunts — including dives, rolls, somersaults, and flips.
Sleight of Hand. Attempt an act of legerdemain or manual trickery, such as planting something on someone else or concealing an object on your person. Determine whether you can lift a coin purse off another person or slip something out of another person’s pocket.
Stealth. Attempt to conceal yourself from enemies, slink past guards, slip away without being noticed, or sneak up on someone without being seen or heard. See also: hiding.
Other Dexterity Checks. The GM might call for a Dexterity check when you try to…
- Control a heavily laden cart on a steep descent
- Steer a chariot around a tight turn
- Pick a lock
- Disable a trap
- Securely tie up a prisoner
- Wriggle free of bonds
- Play a stringed instrument
- Craft a small or detailed object
|Soft; snow, mud||10|
|Dirt or grass||15|
|Each day passed||+5|
If you take the Disengage action, your movement doesn’t provoke opportunity attacks for the rest of the turn.
When you take the Dodge action, you focus entirely on avoiding attacks. Until the start of your next turn, any attack roll made against you has disadvantage if you can see the attacker, and you make Dexterity saving throws with advantage. You lose this benefit if you are incapacitated or if your speed drops to 0.
Getting Into and Out of Armor
|Light Armor||1 min||1 min|
|Medium Armor||5 min||1 min|
|Heavy Armor||10 min||5 min|
|Shield||1 actn||1 action|
Don. This is the time it takes to put on armor. You benefit from the armor’s AC only if you take the full time to don the suit of armor.
Doff. This is the time it takes to take off armor. If you have help, reduce this time by half.
|1||Disadvantage on ability checks|
|3||Disadvantage on attack rolls and saving throws|
|4||Hit point maximum halved|
|5||Speed reduced to 0|
|Aristocratic||10 gp minimum|
|Between towns||3 cp per mile|
|Within a city||1 cp|
|Skilled||2 gp per day|
|Untrained||2 sp per day|
|Messenger||2 cp per mile|
|Road or gate toll||1 cp|
|Ship’s passage||1 sp per mile|
Food, Drink, and Lodging
|Banquet (per person)||10 gp|
|Bread, loaf||2 cp|
|Cheese, hunk||1 sp|
|Inn stay (per day)|
|Meals (per day)|
|Meat, chunk||3 sp|
|Common (pitcher)||2 sp|
|Fine (bottle)||10 gp|
If a flying creature is knocked prone, has its speed reduced to 0, or is otherwise deprived of the ability to move, the creature falls, unless it has the ability to hover or it is being held aloft by magic, such as by the fly spell.
- A grappled creature’s speed becomes 0, and it can’t benefit from any bonus to its speed.
- The condition ends if the grappler is incapacitated.
- The condition also ends if an effect removes the grappled creature from the reach of the grappler or grappling effect, such as when a creature is hurled away by the thunderwave spell.
When you want to grab a creature or wrestle with it, you can use the Attack action to make a special melee attack, a grapple. If you’re able to make multiple attacks with the Attack action, this attack replaces one of them.
The target of your grapple must be no more than one size larger than you, and it must be within your reach. Using at least one free hand, you try to seize the target by making a grapple check, a Strength (Athletics) check contested by the target’s Strength (Athletics) or Dexterity (Acrobatics) check (the target chooses the ability to use). If you succeed, you subject the target to the grappled condition. The condition specifies the things that end it, and you can release the target whenever you like (no action required).
Escaping a Grapple. A grappled creature can use its action to escape. To do so, it must succeed on a Strength (Athletics) or Dexterity (Acrobatics) check contested by your Strength (Athletics) check.
Moving a Grappled Creature. When you move, you can drag or carry the grappled creature with you, but your speed is halved, unless the creature is two or more sizes smaller than you.
Playing on a Grid
If you play out a combat using a square grid…
Squares. Each square on the grid represents 5 feet.
Speed. Rather than moving foot by foot, move square by square on the grid. This means you use your speed in 5-foot segments. This is particularly easy if you translate your speed into squares by dividing the speed by 5. For example, a speed of 30 feet translates into a speed of 6 squares.
Entering a Square. To enter a square, you must have at least 1 square of movement left, even if the square is diagonally adjacent to the square you’re in. (The rule for diagonal movement sacrifices realism for the sake of smooth play.)
If a square costs extra movement, as a square of difficult terrain does, you must have enough movement left to pay for entering it. For example, you must have at least 2 squares of movement left to enter a square of difficult terrain.
Corners. Diagonal movement can’t cross the corner of a wall, large tree, or other terrain feature that fills its space.
Ranges. To determine the range on a grid between two things—whether creatures or objects—start counting squares from a square adjacent to one of them and stop counting in the space of the other one. Count by the shortest route.
Damage Severity by Level
At the end of a fall, a creature takes 1d6 bludgeoning damage for every 10 feet it fell, to a maximum of 20d6. The creature lands prone, unless it avoids taking damage from the fall.
A creature can hold its breath for a number of minutes equal to 1 + its Constitution modifier (minimum of 30 seconds).
When a creature runs out of breath, it can survive for a number of rounds equal to its Constitution modifier (minimum 1 round). At the start of its next turn, it drops to 0 hit points and is dying.
Starvation and Thirst
Characters who don’t eat or drink suffer the effects of exhaustion. Exhaustion caused by lack of food or water can’t be removed until the character eats and drinks the full required amount.
Food. A character needs one pound of food per day and can make food last longer by subsisting on half rations. Eating half a pound of food in a day counts as half a day without food.
A character can go without food for a number of days equal to 3 + his or her Constitution modifier (minimum 1). At the end of each day beyond that limit, a character automatically suffers one level of exhaustion.
A normal day of eating resets the count of days without food to zero.
Water. A character needs one gallon of water per day, or two gallons per day if the weather is hot. A character who drinks only half that much water must succeed on a DC 15 Constitution saving throw or suffer one level of exhaustion at the end of the day. A character with access to even less water automatically suffers one level of exhaustion at the end of the day.
If the character already has one or more levels of exhaustion, the character takes two levels in either case.
Trap Save DCs and Attack Bonuses
|Trap Danger||Save DC||Attack Bonus|
|Setback||10–11||+3 to +5|
|Dangerous||12–15||+6 to +8|
|Deadly||16–20||+9 to +12|
|d100||Effect (lasts 1d10 minutes)|
|01–20||The character retreats into his or her mind and becomes paralyzed. The effect ends if the character takes any damage.|
|21–30||The character becomes incapacitated and spends the duration screaming, laughing, or weeping.|
|31–40||The character becomes frightened and must use his or her action and movement each round to flee from the source of the fear.|
|41–50||The character begins babbling and is incapable of normal speech or spellcasting.|
|51–60||The character must use his or her action each round to attack the nearest creature.|
|61–70||The character experiences vivid hallucinations and has disadvantage on ability checks.|
|71–75||The character does whatever anyone tells him or her to do that isn’t obviously self-destructive.|
|76–80||The character experiences an overpowering urge to eat something strange such as dirt, slime, or offal.|
|81–90||The character is stunned|
|91–100||The character falls unconscious.|
|d100||Effect (lasts 1d10 × 10 hours)|
|01–10||The character feels compelled to repeat a specific activity over and over, such as washing hands, touching things, praying, or counting coins.|
|11–20||The character experiences vivid hallucinations and has disadvantage on ability checks.|
|21–30||The character suffers extreme paranoia. The character has disadvantage on Wisdom and Charisma checks.|
|31–40||The character regards something (usually the source of madness) with intense revulsion, as if affected by the antipathy effect of the antipathy/sympathy spell.|
|41–45||The character experiences a powerful delusion. Choose a potion. The character imagines that he or she is under its effects.|
|46–55||The character becomes attached to a “lucky charm,” such as a person or an object, and has disadvantage on attack rolls, ability checks, and saving throws while more than 30 feet from it.|
|56–65||The character is blinded (25%) or deafened (75%).|
|66–75||The character experiences uncontrollable tremors or tics, which impose disadvantage on attack rolls, ability checks, and saving throws that involve Strength or Dexterity.|
|76–85||The character suffers from partial amnesia. The character knows who he or she is and retains racial traits and class features, but doesn’t recognize other people or remember anything that happened before the madness took effect.|
|86–90||Whenever the character takes damage, he or she must succeed on a DC 15 Wisdom saving throw or be affected as though he or she failed a saving throw against the confusion spell. The confusion effect lasts for 1 minute.|
|91–95||The character loses the ability to speak.|
|96–100||The character falls unconscious. No amount of jostling or damage can wake the character.|
|d100||Flaw (lasts until cured)|
|01–15||“Being drunk keeps me sane.”|
|16–25||“I keep whatever I find.”|
|26–30||“I try to become more like someone else I know—adopting his or her style of dress, mannerisms, and name.”|
|31–35||“I must bend the truth, exaggerate, or outright lie to be interesting to other people.”|
|36–45||“Achieving my goal is the only thing of interest to me, and I’ll ignore everything else to pursue it.”|
|46–50||“I find it hard to care about anything that goes on around me.”|
|51–55||“I don’t like the way people judge me all the time.”|
|56–70||“I am the smartest, wisest, strongest, fastest, and most beautiful person I know.”|
|71–80||“I am convinced that powerful enemies are hunting me, and their agents are everywhere I go. I am sure they’re watching me all the time.”|
|81–85||“There’s only one person I can trust. And only I can see this special friend.”|
|86–95||“I can’t take anything seriously. The more serious the situation, the funnier I find it.”|
|96–100||“I’ve discovered that I really like killing people.”|
You can lend your aid to another creature in the completion of a task. When you take the Help action, the creature you aid gains advantage on the next ability check it makes to perform the task you are helping with, provided that it makes the check before the start of your next turn.
Alternatively, you can aid a friendly creature in attacking a creature within 5 feet of you. You feint, distract the target, or in some other way team up to make your ally’s attack more effective. If your ally attacks the target before your next turn, the first attack roll is made with advantage.
When you take the Hide action, follow the rules for hiding. If you succeed, you gain the benefits of being an unseen combatant.
When you try to hide, make a Dexterity (Stealth) check. Until you are discovered or you stop hiding, that check’s total is contested by the Wisdom (Perception) check of any creature that actively searches for signs of your presence.
You can’t hide from a creature that can see you, and if you make noise (such as shouting a warning or knocking over a vase), you give away your position. An invisible creature can’t be seen, so it can always try to hide. Signs of its passage might still be noticed, however, and it still has to stay quiet.
In combat, most creatures stay alert for signs of danger all around, so if you come out of hiding and approach a creature, it usually sees you. However, under certain circumstances, the GM might allow you to stay hidden as you approach a creature that is distracted, allowing you to gain advantage on an attack before you are seen.
Passive Perception. When you hide, there’s a chance someone will notice you even if they aren’t searching. To determine whether such a creature notices you, the GM compares your Dexterity (Stealth) check with that creature’s passive Wisdom (Perception) score, which equals 10 + the creature’s Wisdom modifier, as well as any other bonuses or penalties. If the creature has advantage, add 5. For disadvantage, subtract 5.
What Can You See? One of the main factors in determining whether you can find a hidden creature or object is how well you can see in an area, which might be lightly or heavily obscured.
Remember, if you can't take actions, you also can't take bonus actions.
When combat starts, every participant makes a Dexterity check to determine their place in the initiative order. The GM makes one roll for an entire group of identical creatures, so each member of the group acts at the same time.
The GM ranks the combatants in order from the one with the highest Dexterity check total to the one with the lowest. This is the order (called the initiative order) in which they act during each round. The initiative order remains the same from round to round.
If a tie occurs, the GM decides the order among tied GM-controlled creatures, and the players decide the order among their tied characters. The GM can decide the order if the tie is between a monster and a player character. Optionally, the GM can have the tied characters and monsters each roll a d20 to determine the order, highest roll going first.
An Intelligence check comes into play when you need to draw on logic, education, memory, or deductive reasoning.
Arcana. Recall lore about spells, magic items, eldritch symbols, magical traditions, the planes of existence, and the inhabitants of those planes.
History. Recall lore about historical events, legendary people, ancient kingdoms, past disputes, recent wars, and lost civilizations.
Investigation. Look around for clues and make deductions based on those clues. Examples include; deduce the location of a hidden object, discern from the appearance of a wound what kind of weapon dealt it, determine the weakest point in a tunnel that could cause it to collapse, or pore through ancient scrolls in search of a hidden fragment of knowledge.
Nature. Recall lore about terrain, plants and animals, the weather, and natural cycles.
Religion. Recall lore about deities, rites and prayers, religious hierarchies, holy symbols, and the practices of secret cults.
Other Intelligence Checks. The GM might call for an Intelligence check when you try to…
- Communicate with a creature without using words
- Estimate the value of a precious item
- Pull together a disguise to pass as a city guard
- Forge a document
- Recall lore about a craft or trade
- Win a game of skill
Other Activity on Your Turn
Your turn can include a variety of flourishes that require neither your action nor your move.
You can communicate however you are able, through brief utterances and gestures, as you take your turn.
Interacting with Objects
You can also interact with one object or feature of the environment for free, during either your move or your action. For example, you could open a door during your move as you stride toward a foe, or you could draw your weapon as part of the same action you use to attack.
If you want to interact with a second object, you need to use your action. Some magic items and other special objects always require an action to use, as stated in their descriptions.
The GM might require you to use an action for any of these activities when it needs special care or when it presents an unusual obstacle. For instance, the GM could reasonably expect you to use an action to open a stuck door or turn a crank to lower a drawbridge.
Here are a few examples of the sorts of thing you can do in tandem with your movement and action:
- draw or sheathe a sword
- open or close a door
- withdraw a potion from your backpack
- pick up a dropped axe
- take a bauble from a table
- remove a ring from your finger
- stuff some food into your mouth
- plant a banner in the ground
- fish a few coins from your belt pouch
- drink all the ale in a flagon
- throw a lever or a switch
- pull a torch from a sconce
- take a book from a shelf you can reach
- extinguish a small flame
- don a mask
- pull the hood of your cloak up and over your head
- put your ear to a door
- kick a small stone
- turn a key in a lock
- tap the floor with a 10-foot pole
- hand an item to another character
- An invisible creature is impossible to see without the aid of magic or a special sense. For the purpose of hiding, the creature is heavily obscured. The creature’s location can be detected by any noise it makes or any tracks it leaves.
- Attack rolls against the creature have disadvantage, and the creature’s attack rolls have advantage.
Your Strength determines how far you can jump.
Long Jump. When you make a long jump, you cover a number of feet up to your Strength score if you move at least 10 feet on foot immediately before the jump. When you make a standing long jump, you can leap only half that distance. Either way, each foot you clear on the jump costs a foot of movement.
This rule assumes that the height of your jump doesn’t matter, such as a jump across a stream or chasm. At your GM’s option, you must succeed on a DC 10 Strength (Athletics) check to clear a low obstacle (no taller than a quarter of the jump’s distance), such as a hedge or low wall. Otherwise, you hit it.
When you land in difficult terrain, you must succeed on a DC 10 Dexterity (Acrobatics) check to land on your feet. Otherwise, you land prone.
High Jump. When you make a high jump, you leap into the air a number of feet equal to 3 + your Strength modifier if you move at least 10 feet on foot immediately before the jump. When you make a standing high jump, you can jump only half that distance. Either way, each foot you clear on the jump costs a foot of movement. In some circumstances, your GM might allow you to make a Strength (Athletics) check to jump higher than you normally can.
You can extend your arms half your height above yourself during the jump. Thus, you can reach above you a distance equal to the height of the jump plus 1½ times your height.
Object Armor Class
|Cloth, paper, rope||11|
|Crystal, glass, ice||13|
Object Hit Points
|Tiny||2 (1d4)||5 (2d4)|
|Small||3 (1d6)||10 (3d6)|
|Medium||4 (1d8)||18 (4d8)|
|Large||5 (1d10)||27 (5d10)|
Objects are immune to poison and psychic damage and the GM may assign other immunities, resistances, and vulnerabilities to specific types of damage. Objects always fail Strength and Dexterity saving throws, and they are immune to effects that require other saves. When an object drops to 0 hit points, it breaks.
A character can also attempt a Strength check to break an object. The GM sets the DC for any such check.
A marching order makes it easier to determine which characters are affected by traps, which ones can spot hidden enemies, and which ones are the closest to those enemies when a fight breaks out.
A character might occupy the front rank, one or more middle ranks, or the back rank. Characters in the front and back ranks need enough room to travel side by side with others in their rank. When space is too tight, the marching order must change, usually by moving characters to a middle rank.
Fewer Than Three Ranks. If an adventuring party arranges its marching order with only two ranks, they are a front rank and a back rank. If there’s only one rank, it’s considered a front rank.
|If you are…||You have…|
|In bulky armor||Disadvantage on stealth checks|
|Blinded||Disadvantage on attacks|
|In ½ cover||+2 bonus to AC & Dex saves|
|In ¾ cover||+5 bonus to AC & Dex saves|
|Dodging||Advantage on Dex saves|
|Exhausted, lvl 1||Disadvantage on ability checks|
|Exhausted, lvl 3||Disadvantage on ability checks, attacks, & saves|
|Frightened||Disadvantage on ability checks & attacks|
|Receiving help||Advantage on an ability check or attack|
|Invisible||Advantage on attacks|
|At long range||Disadvantage on ranged attacks|
|Poisoned||Disadvantage on ability checks & attacks|
|Prone||Disadvantage on attacks|
|Restrained||Disadvantage on attacks|
|Small||Disadvantage with heavy weapons|
|Squeezing||Disadvantage on attacks & Dex saves|
|If your target is…||You have…|
|Blinded||Advantage on attacks|
|Charmed||Advantage on social interaction checks|
|Dodging||Disadvantage on attacks|
|Paralyzed||Advantage on attacks|
|Prone within 5 feet||Advantage on attacks|
|Prone beyond 5 feet||Disadvantage on attacks|
|Restrained||Advantage on attacks|
|Squeezing||Advantage on attacks|
|Stunned||Advantage on attacks|
|Unconscious||Advantage on attacks|
|Within 5 feet||Disadvantage on ranged attacks|
- Adult Black Dragon
- Adult Blue Dracolich
- Adult Blue Dragon
- Adult Brass Dragon
- Adult Bronze Dragon
- Adult Copper Dragon
- Adult Gold Dragon
- Adult Green Dragon
- Adult Red Dragon
- Adult Silver Dragon
- Adult White Dragon
- Air Elemental
- Ancient Black Dragon
- Ancient Blue Dragon
- Ancient Brass Dragon
- Ancient Bronze Dragon
- Ancient Copper Dragon
- Ancient Gold Dragon
- Ancient Green Dragon
- Ancient Red Dragon
- Ancient Silver Dragon
- Ancient White Dragon
- Animated Armor
- Avatar of Death
- Awakened Shrub
- Awakened Tree
- Axe Beak
- Bandit Captain
- Barbed Devil
- Bearded Devil
- Beholder Zombie
- Black Bear
- Black Dragon Wyrmling
- Black Pudding
- Blink Dog
- Blood Hawk
- Blue Dragon Wyrmling
- Bone Devil
- Brass Dragon Wyrmling
- Bronze Dragon Wyrmling
- Brown Bear
- Chain Devil
- Clay Golem
- Cloud Giant
- Constrictor Snake
- Copper Dragon Wyrmling
- Crag Cat
- Cranium Rat
- Cult Fanatic
- Death Dog
- Death Knight
- Deep Gnome (Svirfneblin)
- Dire Wolf
- Draft Horse
- Dragon Turtle
- Drow Mage
- Duergar Stone Guard
- Dust Mephit
- Earth Elemental
- Fire Elemental
- Fire Giant
- Flesh Golem
- Flying Snake
- Flying Sword
- Frost Giant
- Gelatinous Cube
- Giant Ape
- Giant Badger
- Giant Bat
- Giant Boar
- Giant Centipede
- Giant Constrictor Snake
- Giant Crab
- Giant Crocodile
- Giant Eagle
- Giant Elk
- Giant Fire Beetle
- Giant Fly
- Giant Frog
- Giant Goat
- Giant Hyena
- Giant Lizard
- Giant Octopus
- Giant Owl
- Giant Poisonous Snake
- Giant Rat
- Giant Scorpion
- Giant Sea Horse
- Giant Shark
- Giant Spider
- Giant Toad
- Giant Vulture
- Giant Wasp
- Giant Weasel
- Giant Wolf Spider
- Gibbering Mouther
- Githyanki Knight
- Gold Dragon Wyrmling
- Gray Ooze
- Green Dragon Wyrmling
- Green Hag
- Guardian Naga
- Half-Red Dragon Veteran
- Hell Hound
- Hill Giant
- Hobgoblin Iron Shadow
- Horned Devil
- Hulking Crab
- Hunter Shark
- Ice Devil
- Ice Mephit
- Invisible Stalker
- Iron Golem
- Killer Whale
- Kraken Priest
- Kuo-Toa Archpriest
- Magma Mephit
- Minotaur Skeleton
- Mummy Lord
- Night Hag
- Ochre Jelly
- Ogre Zombie
- Phase Spider
- Pit Fiend
- Poisonous Snake
- Polar Bear
- Purple Worm
- Red Dragon Wyrmling
- Reef Shark
- Riding Horse
- Rug of Smothering
- Rust Monster
- Saber-Toothed Tiger
- Sea Hag
- Sea Horse
- Shadow Mastiff
- Shambling Mound
- Shield Guardian
- Silver Dragon Wyrmling
- Spirit Naga
- Steam Mephit
- Stone Giant
- Stone Golem
- Storm Giant
- Swarm of Bats
- Swarm of Insects
- Swarm of Poisonous Snakes
- Swarm of Quippers
- Swarm of Rats
- Swarm of Ravens
- Tribal Warrior
- Tyrannosaurus Rex
- Vampire Spawn
- Violet Fungus
- War Priest
- Warhorse Skeleton
- Water Elemental
- White Dragon Wyrmling
- Winged Kobold
- Winter Wolf
- Yakfolk Priest
- Young Black Dragon
- Young Blue Dragon
- Young Brass Dragon
- Young Bronze Dragon
- Young Copper Dragon
- Young Gold Dragon
- Young Green Dragon
- Young Red Dragon
- Young Remorhaz
- Young Silver Dragon
- Young White Dragon
- Yuan-ti Broodguard
Note: Monster links open in a new tab.
Mounts and Vehicles
Vehicle Proficiency. If you have proficiency with a certain kind of vehicle (land or water), you can add your proficiency bonus to any check you make to control that kind of vehicle in difficult circumstances.
Mounts and Other Animals
|Camel||50 gp||50 ft.||480 lb.|
|Donkey or mule||8 gp||40 ft.||420 lb.|
|Elephant||200 gp||40 ft.||1,320 lb.|
|Horse, draft||50 gp||40 ft.||540 lb.|
|Horse, riding||75 gp||60 ft.||480 lb.|
|Mastiff||25 gp||40 ft.||195 lb.|
|Pony||30 gp||40 ft.||225 lb.|
|Warhorse||400 gp||60 ft.||540 lb.|
Tack, Harness, and Drawn Vehicles
|Bit and bridle||2 gp||1 lb.|
|Carriage||100 gp||600 lb.|
|Cart||15 gp||200 lb.|
|Chariot||250 gp||100 lb.|
|Feed (per day)||5 cp||10 lb.|
|Exotic||60 gp||40 lb.|
|Military||20 gp||30 lb.|
|Pack||5 gp||15 lb.|
|Riding||10 gp||25 lb.|
|Saddlebags||4 gp||8 lb.|
|Sled||20 gp||300 lb.|
|Stabling (per day)||5 sp||—|
|Wagon||35 gp||400 lb.|
Every character and monster has a speed, which is the distance in feet that the character or monster can walk in 1 round.
Difficult Terrain. Every foot costs +1 foot. Examples: another creature’s space, rubble, undergrowth, steep stairs, snow, shallow bogs.
Long jump. Move 10+ feet, then jump a number of feet up to your Str score. Standing: half distance.
High jump. Move 10+ feet, then jump a number of feet up to 3 + Str modifier. Standing: half distance.
Climbing. Every foot costs +1 foot unless you have a climb speed.
Crawling. Every foot costs +1 foot when moving while prone.
Squeezing. Every foot costs +1 foot when squeezing through a small space.
Swimming. Every foot costs +1 foot unless you have a swim speed.
Stand up. Spend an amount of movement equal to half your speed to stand up from a prone or crawling position.
|Fast||400 feet||4 miles||30 miles||−5 penalty to passive Wisdom (Perception) scores|
|Normal||300 feet||3 miles||24 miles||—|
|Slow||200 feet||2 miles||18 miles||Able to use stealth|
Moving in Combat
On your turn, you can move a distance up to your speed. Your movement can include jumping, climbing, and swimming.
You can break up your movement on your turn by taking actions and making attacks as you move.
Being Prone. You can drop prone without using any of your speed. Standing up costs an amount of movement equal to half your speed. You can’t stand up if you don’t have enough movement left or if your speed is 0.
To move while prone, you must crawl or use magic such as teleportation. Every foot of movement while crawling costs 1 extra foot. Crawling 1 foot in difficult terrain, therefore, costs 3 feet of movement.
Moving Around Other Creatures. You can move through a nonhostile creature’s space. In contrast, you can move through a hostile creature’s space only if the creature is at least two sizes larger or smaller than you. Remember that another creature’s space is difficult terrain for you.
Whether a creature is a friend or an enemy, you can’t willingly end your move in its space.
If you leave a hostile creature’s reach during your move, you provoke an opportunity attack.
Using Different Speeds. If you have more than one speed, such as your walking speed and a flying speed, you can switch back and forth between your speeds during your move. Whenever you switch, subtract the distance you’ve already moved from the new speed. The result determines how much farther you can move. If the result is 0 or less, you can’t use the new speed during the current move.
You can make an opportunity attack when a hostile creature that you can see moves out of your reach. To make the opportunity attack, you use your reaction to make one melee attack against the provoking creature. The attack interrupts the provoking creature’s movement, occurring right before the creature leaves your reach.
You can avoid provoking an opportunity attack by taking the Disengage action. You also don’t provoke an opportunity attack when you teleport or when someone or something moves you without using your movement, action, or reaction. For example, you don’t provoke an opportunity attack if an explosion hurls you out of a foe’s reach or if gravity causes you to fall past an enemy.
- A petrified creature is transformed, along with any nonmagical object it is wearing or carrying, into a solid inanimate substance (usually stone). Its weight increases by a factor of ten, and it ceases aging.
- The creature is incapacitated, can’t move or speak, and is unaware of its surroundings.
- Attack rolls against the creature have advantage.
- The creature automatically fails Strength and Dexterity saving throws.
- The creature has resistance to all damage.
- The creature is immune to poison and disease, although a poison or disease already in its system is suspended, not neutralized.
A poisoned creature has disadvantage on attack rolls and ability checks.
|Assassin’s blood||Ingested||150 gp|
|Burnt othur fumes||Inhaled||500 gp|
|Crawler mucus||Contact||200 gp|
|Drow poison||Injury||200 gp|
|Essence of ether||Inhaled||300 gp|
|Midnight tears||Ingested||1,500 gp|
|Oil of taggit||Contact||400 gp|
|Pale tincture||Ingested||250 gp|
|Purple worm poison||Injury||2,000 gp|
|Serpent venom||Injury||200 gp|
|Truth serum||Ingested||150 gp|
|Wyvern poison||Injury||1,200 gp|
A reaction is an instant response to a trigger of some kind, which can occur on your turn or on someone else’s. The opportunity attack is the most common type of reaction.
When you take a reaction, you can’t take another one until the start of your next turn. If the reaction interrupts another creature’s turn, that creature can continue its turn right after the reaction.
You can take the Ready action on your turn so that you can act later in the round using your reaction.
First, you decide what perceivable circumstance will trigger your reaction. Then, you choose the action you will take in response to that trigger, or you choose to move up to your speed in response to it. Examples include “If the cultist steps on the trapdoor, I’ll pull the lever that opens it,” and “If the goblin steps next to me, I move away.”
When the trigger occurs, you can either take your reaction right after the trigger finishes or ignore the trigger. Remember that you can take only one reaction per round.
When you ready a spell, you cast it as normal but hold its energy, which you release with your reaction when the trigger occurs. To be readied, a spell must have a casting time of 1 action, and holding onto the spell’s magic requires concentration. If your concentration is broken, the spell dissipates without taking effect.
When you take a short rest, you…
- Must rest for at least 1 hour.
- Must be sedate (eat, drink, read, tend wounds).
- May spend one or more Hit Dice at the end of the rest.
- Roll the die and add your Constitution modifier.
- Regain hit points equal to the total.
- You can decide to spend an additional Hit Die after each roll.
When you take a long rest, you…
- Must have at least 1 hit point at the start of the rest.
- Must rest for at least 8 hours.
- Must sleep or perform only light activity: reading, talking, eating, or standing watch for no more than 2 hours.
- At the end of the rest…
- Regain all lost hit points.
- Regain spent hit dice equal to half of your total hit dice (minimum of one die).
A character can’t benefit from more than one long rest in a 24-hour period.
Rounds and Turns
A round represents about 6 seconds. Each round you can…
When you take the Search action, you devote your attention to finding something. Depending on the nature of your search, the GM might have you make a Wisdom (Perception) check or an Intelligence (Investigation) check.
Normally, you can sell your treasures and trinkets when you return to a town or other settlement, provided that you can find buyers and merchants interested in your loot.
Arms, Armor, and Other Equipment. As a general rule, undamaged weapons, armor, and other equipment fetch half their cost when sold in a market. Weapons and armor used by monsters are rarely in good enough condition to sell.
Magic Items. Selling magic items is problematic. Finding someone to buy a potion or a scroll isn’t too hard, but other items are out of the realm of most but the wealthiest nobles. Likewise, aside from a few common magic items, you won’t normally come across magic items or spells to purchase. The value of magic is far beyond simple gold and should always be treated as such.
Gems, Jewelry, and Art Objects. These items retain their full value in the marketplace, and you can either trade them in for coin or use them as currency for other transactions. For exceptionally valuable treasures, the GM might require you to find a buyer in a large town or larger community first.
Trade Goods. On the borderlands, many people conduct transactions through barter. Like gems and art objects, trade goods—bars of iron, bags of salt, livestock, and so on—retain their full value in the market and can be used as currency.
Shoving a Creature
Using the Attack action, you can make a special melee attack to shove a creature, either to knock it prone or push it away from you. If you’re able to make multiple attacks with the Attack action, this attack replaces one of them.
The target of your shove must be no more than one size larger than you, and it must be within your reach. You make a Strength (Athletics) check contested by the target’s Strength (Athletics) or Dexterity (Acrobatics) check (the target chooses the ability to use). If you win the contest, you either knock the target prone or push it 5 feet away from you.
|Tiny||2½ by 2½ ft.||Imp, sprite|
|Small||5 by 5 ft.||Giant rat, goblin|
|Medium||5 by 5 ft.||Orc, werewolf|
|Large||10 by 10 ft.||Hippogriff, ogre|
|Huge||15 by 15 ft.||Fire giant, treant|
|Gargantuan||20 by 20 ft. or larger||Kraken, purple worm|
A creature’s space is the area in feet that it effectively controls in combat, not an expression of its physical dimensions. A typical Medium creature isn’t 5 feet wide, for example, but it does control a space that wide. If a Medium hobgoblin stands in a 5-foot-wide doorway, other creatures can’t get through unless the hobgoblin lets them.
A creature’s space also reflects the area it needs to fight effectively. For that reason, there’s a limit to the number of creatures that can surround another creature in combat. Assuming Medium combatants, eight creatures can fit in a 5-foot radius around another one.
Because larger creatures take up more space, fewer of them can surround a creature. If five Large creatures crowd around a Medium or smaller one, there’s little room for anyone else. In contrast, as many as twenty Medium creatures can surround a Gargantuan one.
A spell’s components are the physical requirements you must meet in order to cast it.
Verbal (V). A character who is gagged or in an area of silence, such as one created by the silence spell, can’t cast a spell with a verbal component.
Somatic (S). If a spell requires a somatic component, the caster must have free use of at least one hand to perform these gestures.
Material (M). A character can use a component pouch or a spellcasting focus in place of the components specified for a spell. But if a cost is indicated for a component, a character must have that specific component before he or she can cast the spell.
If a spell states that a material component is consumed by the spell, the caster must provide this component for each casting of the spell.
A spellcaster must have a hand free to access these components, but it can be the same hand that he or she uses to perform somatic components.
A duration can be expressed in rounds, minutes, hours, or even years. Some spells specify that their effects last until the spells are dispelled or destroyed.
Instantaneous. Many spells are instantaneous. The spell harms, heals, creates, or alters a creature or an object in a way that can’t be dispelled, because its magic exists only for an instant.
If a spell must be maintained with concentration, that fact appears in its Duration entry, and the spell specifies how long you can concentrate on it. You can end concentration at any time (no action required).
The following factors can break concentration:
- Casting another spell that requires concentration. You can’t concentrate on two things at once.
- Readying another spell. You must concentrate to ready a spell.
- Taking damage. Make a Constitution saving throw to maintain your concentration. The DC equals 10 or half the damage you take, whichever number is higher. If you take damage from multiple sources, you make a separate saving throw for each source of damage.
- Being incapacitated or killed. You lose concentration on a spell if you are incapacitated or if you die.
The GM might also decide that certain environmental phenomena, such as a wave crashing over you while you’re on a storm-tossed ship, require you to succeed on a DC 10 Constitution saving throw to maintain concentration on a spell.
A spell’s description tells you whether the spell targets creatures, objects, or a point of origin for an area of effect.
If a spell has no perceptible effect, a creature might not know it was targeted by a spell at all — unless the spell says otherwise.
A Clear Path to the Target. To target something, you must have a clear path to it, so it can’t be behind total cover.
If you place an area of effect at a point that you can’t see and an obstruction, such as a wall, is between you and that point, the point of origin comes into being on the near side of that obstruction.
Targeting Yourself. If a spell targets a creature of your choice, you can choose yourself, unless the creature must be hostile or specifically a creature other than you. If you are in the area of effect of a spell you cast, you can target yourself.
- Acid Arrow
- Acid Splash
- Alter Self
- Animal Messenger
- Animal Shapes
- Animate Dead
- Animate Objects
- Antilife Shell
- Antimagic Field
- Arcane Eye
- Arcane Hand
- Arcane Lock
- Arcane Sword
- Arcanist’s Magic Aura
- Astral Projection
- Beacon of Hope
- Bestow Curse
- Black Tentacles
- Blade Barrier
- Burning Hands
- Call Lightning
- Calm Emotions
- Chain Lightning
- Charm Person
- Chill Touch
- Circle of Death
- Color Spray
- Commune with Nature
- Comprehend Languages
- Cone of Cold
- Conjure Animals
- Conjure Celestial
- Conjure Elemental
- Conjure Fey
- Conjure Minor Elementals
- Conjure Woodland Beings
- Contact Other Plane
- Continual Flame
- Control Water
- Control Weather
- Create Food and Water
- Create or Destroy Water
- Create Undead
- Cure Wounds
- Dancing Lights
- Death Ward
- Delayed Blast Fireball
- Detect Evil and Good
- Detect Magic
- Detect Poison and Disease
- Detect Thoughts
- Dimension Door
- Disguise Self
- Dispel Evil and Good
- Dispel Magic
- Divine Favor
- Divine Word
- Dominate Beast
- Dominate Monster
- Dominate Person
- Eldritch Blast
- Enhance Ability
- Expeditious Retreat
- Faerie Fire
- Faithful Hound
- False Life
- Feather Fall
- Find Steed
- Find the Path
- Find Traps
- Finger of Death
- Fire Shield
- Fire Storm
- Flame Blade
- Flame Strike
- Flaming Sphere
- Flesh to Stone
- Floating Disk
- Fog Cloud
- Freedom of Movement
- Freezing Sphere
- Gaseous Form
- Gentle Repose
- Giant Insect
- Globe of Invulnerability
- Glyph of Warding
- Greater Invisibility
- Greater Restoration
- Guards and Wards
- Guiding Bolt
- Gust of Wind
- Hallucinatory Terrain
- Healing Word
- Heat Metal
- Heroes’ Feast
- Hideous Laughter
- Hold Monster
- Hold Person
- Holy Aura
- Hypnotic Pattern
- Ice Storm
- Illusory Script
- Incendiary Cloud
- Inflict Wounds
- Insect Plague
- Instant Summons
- Irresistible Dance
- Legend Lore
- Lesser Restoration
- Lightning Bolt
- Locate Animals or Plants
- Locate Creature
- Locate Object
- Mage Armor
- Mage Hand
- Magic Circle
- Magic Jar
- Magic Missile
- Magic Mouth
- Magic Weapon
- Magnificent Mansion
- Major Image
- Mass Cure Wounds
- Mass Heal
- Mass Healing Word
- Mass Suggestion
- Meld into Stone
- Meteor Swarm
- Mind Blank
- Minor Illusion
- Mirage Arcane
- Mirror Image
- Misty Step
- Modify Memory
- Move Earth
- Pass without Trace
- Phantasmal Killer
- Phantom Steed
- Planar Ally
- Planar Binding
- Plane Shift
- Plant Growth
- Power Word Kill
- Prayer of Healing
- Prismatic Spray
- Prismatic Wall
- Private Sanctum
- Produce Flame
- Programmed Illusion
- Project Image
- Protection from Energy
- Protection from Evil and Good
- Protection from Poison
- Purify Food and Drink
- Raise Dead
- Ray of Enfeeblement
- Ray of Frost
- Remove Curse
- Resilient Sphere
- Reverse Gravity
- Rope Trick
- Sacred Flame
- Scorching Ray
- Secret Chest
- See Invisibility
- Shield of Faith
- Shocking Grasp
- Silent Image
- Sleet Storm
- Speak with Animals
- Speak with Dead
- Speak with Plants
- Spider Climb
- Spike Growth
- Spirit Guardians
- Spiritual Weapon
- Stinking Cloud
- Stone Shape
- Storm of Vengeance
- Telepathic Bond
- Teleportation Circle
- Time Stop
- Tiny Hut
- Transport via Plants
- Tree Stride
- True Polymorph
- True Resurrection
- True Seeing
- True Strike
- Unseen Servant
- Vampiric Touch
- Wall of Fire
- Wall of Force
- Wall of Ice
- Wall of Stone
- Wall of Thorns
- Warding Bond
- Water Breathing
- Water Walk
- Wind Walk
- Wind Wall
- Word of Recall
- Zone of Truth
Note: Spell links open in a new tab.
Squeezing into a Smaller Space
A creature can squeeze through a space that is large enough for a creature one size smaller than it. Thus, a Large creature can squeeze through a passage that’s only 5 feet wide. While squeezing through a space, a creature must spend 1 extra foot for every foot it moves there, and it has disadvantage on attack rolls and Dexterity saving throws. Attack rolls against the creature have advantage while it’s in the smaller space.
A Strength check can model any attempt to lift, push, pull, or break something, to force your body through a space, or to otherwise apply brute force to a situation.
Athletics. Difficult situations you encounter while climbing, jumping, or swimming. Examples include…
- You attempt to climb a sheer or slippery cliff, avoid hazards while scaling a wall, or cling to a surface while something is trying to knock you off.
- You try to jump an unusually long distance or pull off a stunt midjump.
- You struggle to swim or stay afloat in treacherous currents, storm-tossed waves, or areas of thick seaweed. Or another creature tries to push or pull you underwater or otherwise interfere with your swimming.
Other Strength Checks. The GM might also call for a Strength check when you try to…
- Force open a stuck, locked, or barred door
- Break free of bonds
- Push through a tunnel that is too small
- Hang on to a wagon while being dragged behind it
- Tip over a statue
- Keep a boulder from rolling
The GM determines who might be surprised. If neither side tries to be stealthy, they automatically notice each other. Otherwise, the GM compares the Dexterity (Stealth) checks of anyone hiding with the passive Wisdom (Perception) score of each creature on the opposing side. Any character or monster that doesn’t notice a threat is surprised at the start of the encounter.
If you’re surprised, you can’t move or take an action on your first turn of the combat, and you can’t take a reaction until that turn ends. A member of a group can be surprised even if the other members aren’t.
Temporary Hit Points
When you have temporary hit points and take damage, the temporary hit points are lost first, and any leftover damage carries over to your normal hit points.
Because temporary hit points are separate from your actual hit points, they can exceed your hit point maximum. A character can, therefore, be at full hit points and receive temporary hit points.
Healing can’t restore temporary hit points, and they can’t be added together. If you have temporary hit points and receive more of them, you decide whether to keep the ones you have or to gain the new ones.
If you have 0 hit points, receiving temporary hit points doesn’t restore you to consciousness or stabilize you. They can still absorb damage directed at you while you’re in that state, but only true healing can save you.
Unless a feature that grants you temporary hit points has a duration, they last until they’re depleted or you finish a long rest.
|Alchemist’s supplies||50 gp||8 lb.|
|Brewer’s supplies||20 gp||9 lb.|
|Calligrapher’s supplies||10 gp||5 lb.|
|Carpenter’s tools||8 gp||6 lb.|
|Cartographer’s tools||15 gp.||6 lb.|
|Cobbler’s tools||5 gp||5 lb.|
|Cook’s utensils||1 gp||8 lb.|
|Glassblower’s tools||30 gp||5 lb.|
|Jeweler’s tools||25 gp||2 lb.|
|Leatherworker’s tools||5 gp||5 lb.|
|Mason’s tools||10 gp||8 lb.|
|Painter’s supplies||10 gp||5 lb.|
|Potter’s tools||10 gp||3 lb.|
|Smith’s tools||20 gp||8 lb.|
|Tinker’s tools||50 gp||10 lb.|
|Weaver’s tools||1 gp||5 lb.|
|Woodcarver’s tools||1 gp||5 lb.|
|Disguise kit||25 gp||3 lb.|
|Forgery kit||15 gp||5 lb.|
|Dice set||1 sp||—|
|Dragonchess set||1 gp||½ lb.|
|Playing card set||5 sp||—|
|Three-Dragon Ante set||1 gp||—|
|Herbalism kit||5 gp||3 lb.|
|Bagpipes||30 gp||6 lb.|
|Drum||6 gp||3 lb.|
|Dulcimer||25 gp||10 lb.|
|Flute||2 gp||1 lb.|
|Lute||35 gp||2 lb.|
|Lyre||30 gp||2 lb.|
|Horn||3 gp||2 lb.|
|Pan flute||12 gp||2 lb.|
|Shawm||2 gp||1 lb.|
|Viol||30 gp||1 lb.|
|Navigator’s tools||25 gp||2 lb.|
|Poisoner’s kit||50 gp||2 lb.|
|Thieves’ tools||25 gp||1 lb.|
|1 cp||1 lb. of wheat|
|2 cp||1 lb. of flour or one chicken|
|5 cp||1 lb. of salt|
|1 sp||1 lb. of iron or 1 sq. yd. of canvas|
|5 sp||1 lb. of copper or 1 sq. yd. of cotton cloth|
|1 gp||1 lb. of ginger or one goat|
|2 gp||1 lb. of cinnamon or pepper, or one sheep|
|3 gp||1 lb. of cloves or one pig|
|5 gp||1 lb. of silver or 1 sq. yd. of linen|
|10 gp||1 sq. yd. of silk or one cow|
|15 gp||1 lb. of saffron or one ox|
|50 gp||1 lb. of gold|
|500 gp||1 lb. of platinum|
The Travel Pace table assumes that characters travel for 8 hours in a day.
Forced March. For each additional hour of travel beyond 8 hours, each character must make a Constitution saving throw at the end of the hour. The DC is 10 + 1 for each hour past 8 hours. On a failed saving throw, a character suffers one level of exhaustion.
Mounts. A mounted character can ride at a gallop for about an hour, covering twice the usual distance for a fast pace.
Waterborne vehicles. Characters in a waterborne vessel are limited to the speed of the vessel, and they don’t suffer penalties for a fast pace or gain benefits from a slow pace. Some ships might be able to travel for up to 24 hours per day.
While traveling at a slow pace, the characters can move stealthily. As long as they’re not in the open, they can try to surprise or sneak by other creatures they encounter. See the rules for hiding.
Use the passive Wisdom (Perception) scores of the characters to determine whether anyone in the group notices a hidden threat. The GM might decide that a threat can be noticed only by characters in a particular rank. For example, as the characters are exploring a maze of tunnels, the GM might decide that only those characters in the back rank have a chance to hear or spot a stealthy creature following the group, while characters in the front and middle ranks cannot.
While traveling at a fast pace, characters take a –5 penalty to their passive Wisdom (Perception) scores to notice hidden threats.
Encountering Creatures. If the GM determines that the adventurers encounter other creatures while they’re traveling, it’s up to both groups to decide what happens next. Either group might decide to attack, initiate a conversation, run away, or wait to see what the other group does.
Surprising Foes. If the adventurers encounter a hostile creature or group, the GM determines whether the adventurers or their foes might be surprised when combat erupts.
Characters who turn their attention to other tasks as the group travels are not focused on watching for danger. These characters don’t contribute their passive Wisdom (Perception) scores to the group’s chance of noticing hidden threats. However, a character not watching for danger can do one of the following activities instead, or some other activity with the GM’s permission.
Navigate. The character can try to prevent the group from becoming lost, making a Wisdom (Survival) check when the GM calls for it.
Draw a Map. The character can draw a map that records the group’s progress and helps the characters get back on course if they get lost. No ability check is required.
Track. A character can follow the tracks of another creature, making a Wisdom (Survival) check when the GM calls for it.
Forage. The character can keep an eye out for ready sources of food and water, making a Wisdom (Survival) check when the GM calls for it.
A creature with truesight can, out to a specific range, see in normal and magical darkness, see invisible creatures and objects, automatically detect visual illusions and succeed on saving throws against them, and perceive the original form of a shapechanger or a creature that is transformed by magic. Furthermore, the creature can see into the Ethereal Plane.
When you take the Attack action and attack with a light melee weapon that you’re holding in one hand, you can use a bonus action to attack with a different light melee weapon that you’re holding in the other hand. You don’t add your ability modifier to the damage of the bonus attack, unless that modifier is negative.
If either weapon has the thrown property, you can throw the weapon, instead of making a melee attack with it.
- An unconscious creature is incapacitated, can’t move or speak, and is unaware of its surroundings.
- The creature drops whatever it’s holding and falls prone.
- The creature automatically fails Strength and Dexterity saving throws.
- Attack rolls against the creature have advantage.
- Any attack that hits the creature is a critical hit if the attacker is within 5 feet of the creature.
Use an Object
You normally interact with an object while doing something else, such as when you draw a sword as part of an attack. When an object requires your action for its use, you take the Use an Object action. This action is also useful when you want to interact with more than one object on your turn.
Vision and Light
|Source||Bright Light||Dim Light||Duration|
|Candle||5 ft.||+5 ft.||1 hour|
|Lamp||15 ft.||+30 ft.||6 hours|
|Lantern, bullseye||60 ft. cone||+60 ft.||6 hours|
|Lantern, hooded||30 ft.||+30 ft.||6 hours|
|Lowered hood||—||5 ft.||6 hours|
|Torch||20 ft.||+20 ft.||1 hour|
Bright light lets most creatures see normally.
Dim light, also called shadows, creates a lightly obscured area. Examples: twilight, full moonlight.
Darkness creates a heavily obscured area. Examples: outdoors at night, unlit underground, magical darkness.
Lightly obscured. Creatures have disadvantage on Wisdom (Perception) checks that rely on sight. Examples: dim light, patchy fog, moderate foliage.
Heavily obscured. Vision is blocked; creatures are effectively blinded. Examples: darkness, opaque fog, dense foliage.
|Simple Melee Weapons|
|Club||1 sp||1d4 b||2 lb.||Light|
|Dagger||2 gp||1d4 p||1 lb.||Finesse, light, thrown (range 20/60)|
|Greatclub||2 sp||1d8 b||10 lb.||Two-handed|
|Handaxe||5 gp||1d6 s||2 lb.||Light, thrown (range 20/60)|
|Javelin||5 sp||1d6 p||2 lb.||Thrown (range 30/120)|
|Light hammer||2 gp||1d4 b||2 lb.||Light, thrown (range 20/60)|
|Mace||5 gp||1d6 b||4 lb.||—|
|Quarterstaff||2 sp||1d6 b||4 lb.||Versatile (1d8)|
|Sickle||1 gp||1d4 s||2 lb.||Light|
|Spear||1 gp||1d6 p||3 lb.||Thrown (range 20/60), versatile (1d8)|
|Unarmed strike||—||1 b||—||—|
|Simple Ranged Weapons|
|Crossbow, light||25 gp||1d8 p||5 lb.||Ammunition (range 80/320), loading, two-handed|
|Dart||5 cp||1d4 p||¼ lb.||Finesse, thrown (range 20/60)|
|Shortbow||25 gp||1d6 p||2 lb.||Ammunition (range 80/320), two-handed|
|Sling||1 sp||1d4 b||—||Ammunition (range 30/120)|
|Martial Melee Weapons|
|Battleaxe||10 gp||1d8 s||4 lb.||Versatile (1d10)|
|Flail||10 gp||1d8 b||2 lb.||—|
|Glaive||20 gp||1d10 s||6 lb.||Heavy, reach, two-handed|
|Greataxe||30 gp||1d12 s||7 lb.||Heavy, two-handed|
|Greatsword||50 gp||2d6 s||6 lb.||Heavy, two-handed|
|Halberd||20 gp||1d10 s||6 lb.||Heavy, reach, two-handed|
|Lance||10 gp||1d12 p||6 lb.||Reach, special|
|Longsword||15 gp||1d8 s||3 lb.||Versatile (1d10)|
|Maul||10 gp||2d6 b||10 lb.||Heavy, two-handed|
|Morningstar||15 gp||1d8 p||4 lb.||—|
|Pike||5 gp||1d10 p||18 lb.||Heavy, reach, two-handed|
|Rapier||25 gp||1d8 p||2 lb.||Finesse|
|Scimitar||25 gp||1d6 s||3 lb.||Finesse, light|
|Shortsword||10 gp||1d6 p||2 lb.||Finesse, light|
|Trident||5 gp||1d6 p||4 lb.||Thrown (range 20/60), versatile (1d8)|
|War pick||5 gp||1d8 p||2 lb.||—|
|Warhammer||15 gp||1d8 b||2 lb.||Versatile (1d10)|
|Whip||2 gp||1d4 s||3 lb.||Finesse, reach|
|Martial Ranged Weapons|
|Blowgun||10 gp||1 p||1 lb.||Ammunition (range 25/100), loading|
|Crossbow, hand||75 gp||1d6 p||3 lb.||Ammunition (range 30/120), light, loading|
|Crossbow, heavy||50 gp||1d10 p||18 lb.||Ammunition (range 100/400), heavy, loading, two-handed|
|Longbow||50 gp||1d8 p||2 lb.||Ammunition (range 150/600), heavy, two-handed|
|Net||1 gp||—||3 lb.||Special, thrown (range 5/15)|
A Wisdom check might reflect an effort to read body language, understand someone’s feelings, notice things about the environment, or care for an injured person.
Animal Handling. Calm down a domesticated animal, keep a mount from getting spooked, or intuit an animal’s intentions, or control your mount when you attempt a risky maneuver.
Insight. Determine the true intentions of a creature, such as when searching out a lie or predicting someone’s next move. Doing so involves gleaning clues from body language, speech habits, and changes in mannerisms.
Medicine. Try to stabilize a dying companion or diagnose an illness.
Perception. Spot, hear, or otherwise detect the presence of something — measures your general awareness of your surroundings and the keenness of your senses.
For example, you might try to hear a conversation through a closed door, eavesdrop under an open window, or hear monsters moving stealthily in the forest. Or you might try to spot things that are obscured or easy to miss, whether they are orcs lying in ambush on a road, thugs hiding in the shadows of an alley, or candlelight under a closed secret door.
Survival. Follow tracks, hunt wild game, guide your group through frozen wastelands, identify signs that owlbears live nearby, predict the weather, or avoid quicksand and other natural hazards.
Other Wisdom Checks. The GM might call for a Wisdom check when you try to…
- Get a gut feeling about what course of action to follow
- Discern whether a seemingly dead or living creature is undead
Dropping to 0 Hit Points
When you drop to 0 hit points, you either die outright or fall unconscious.
Instant Death. When damage reduces you to 0 hit points and there is damage remaining, you die if the remaining damage equals or exceeds your hit point maximum.
Falling Unconscious. If damage reduces you to 0 hit points and fails to kill you, you fall unconscious. This unconsciousness ends if you regain any hit points.
Death Saving Throws. Whenever you start your turn with 0 hit points, you must make a special saving throw — that isn’t tied to any ability score — aided only by spells and features that improve your chances of succeeding on a saving throw.
Roll a d20. If the roll is 10 or higher, you succeed. Otherwise, you fail. On your third success, you become stable (see below). On your third failure, you die. The successes and failures don’t need to be consecutive; keep track of both until you collect three of a kind. The number of both is reset to zero when you regain any hit points or become stable.
Rolling 1 or 20. When you make a death saving throw and roll a 1 on the d20, it counts as two failures. If you roll a 20 on the d20, you regain 1 hit point.
Damage at 0 Hit Points. If you take any damage while you have 0 hit points, you suffer a death saving throw failure. If the damage is from a critical hit, you suffer two failures instead. If the damage equals or exceeds your hit point maximum, you suffer instant death.
Stabilizing a Creature. You can use your action to stabilize an unconscious creature with a successful DC 10 Wisdom (Medicine) check.
A stable creature doesn’t make death saving throws, even though it has 0 hit points, but it does remain unconscious. The creature stops being stable, and must start making death saving throws again, if it takes any damage. A stable creature that isn’t healed regains 1 hit point after 1d4 hours.
Monsters and Death. Most GMs have a monster die the instant it drops to 0 hit points, rather than having it fall unconscious and make death saving throws.
Mighty villains and special nonplayer characters are common exceptions; the GM might have them fall unconscious and follow the same rules as player characters.
Knocking a Creature Out. When an attacker reduces a creature to 0 hit points with a melee attack, the attacker can knock the creature out. The attacker can make this choice the instant the damage is dealt. The creature falls unconscious and is stable.
Huge and Gargantuan Objects
Normal weapons are of little use against many Huge and Gargantuan objects, such as a colossal statue, towering column of stone, or massive boulder. That said, one torch can burn a Huge tapestry, and an earthquake spell can reduce a colossus to rubble. You can track a Huge or Gargantuan object’s hit points if you like, or you can simply decide how long the object can withstand whatever weapon or force is acting against it. If you track hit points for the object, divide it into Large or smaller sections, and track each section’s hit points separately. Destroying one of those sections could ruin the entire object. For example, a Gargantuan statue of a human might topple over when one of its Large legs is reduced to 0 hit points.
Damage Threshold. Big objects such as castle walls often have extra resilience represented by a damage threshold. An object with a damage threshold has immunity to all damage unless it takes an amount of damage from a single attack or effect equal to or greater than its damage threshold, in which case it takes damage as normal. Any damage that fails to meet or exceed the object’s damage threshold is considered superficial and doesn’t reduce the object’s hit points.
As an action, you can splash the contents of this vial onto a creature within 5 feet of you or throw the vial up to 20 feet, shattering it on impact. In either case, make a ranged attack against a creature or object, treating the acid as an improvised weapon. On a hit, the target takes 2d6 acid damage.
This sticky, adhesive fluid ignites when exposed to air. As an action, you can throw this flask up to 20 feet, shattering it on impact. Make a ranged attack against a creature or object, treating the alchemist’s fire as an improvised weapon. On a hit, the target takes 1d4 fire damage at the start of each of its turns. A creature can end this damage by using its action to make a DC 10 Dexterity check to extinguish the flames.
A creature that drinks this vial of liquid gains advantage on saving throws against poison for 1 hour. It confers no benefit to undead or constructs.
As an action, you can spill these tiny metal balls from their pouch to cover a level area 10 feet square. A creature moving across the covered area must succeed on a DC 10 Dexterity saving throw or fall prone. A creature moving through the area at half speed doesn’t need to make the saving throw.
Block and Tackle
A set of pulleys with a cable threaded through them and a hook to attach to objects, a block and tackle allows you to hoist up to four times the weight you can normally lift.
A book might contain poetry, historical accounts, information pertaining to a particular field of lore, diagrams and notes on gnomish contraptions, or just about anything else that can be represented using text or pictures. A book of spells is a spellbook.
As an action, you can spread a single bag of caltrops to cover a 5-foot-square area. Any creature that enters the area must succeed on a DC 15 Dexterity saving throw or stop moving and take 1 piercing damage. Until the creature regains at least 1 hit point, its walking speed is reduced by 10 feet. A creature moving through the area at half speed doesn’t need to make the saving throw.
For 1 hour, a candle sheds bright light in a 5-foot radius and dim light for an additional 5 feet.
Case, Crossbow Bolt
This wooden case can hold up to twenty crossbow bolts.
Case, Map or Scroll
This cylindrical leather case can hold up to ten rolled-up sheets of paper or five rolled-up sheets of parchment.
A chain has 10 hit points. It can be burst with a successful DC 20 Strength check.
A climber’s kit includes special pitons, boot tips, gloves, and a harness. You can use the climber’s kit as an action to anchor yourself; when you do, you can’t fall more than 25 feet from the point where you anchored yourself, and you can’t climb more than 25 feet away from that point without undoing the anchor.
A component pouch is a small, watertight leather belt pouch that has compartments to hold all the material components and other special items you need to cast your spells, except for those components that have a specific cost (as indicated in a spell’s description).
Using a crowbar grants advantage to Strength checks where the crowbar’s leverage can be applied.
This kit includes a wooden rod, silken line, corkwood bobbers, steel hooks, lead sinkers, velvet lures, and narrow netting.
This kit is a leather pouch containing bandages, salves, and splints. The kit has ten uses. As an action, you can expend one use of the kit to stabilize a creature that has 0 hit points, without needing to make a Wisdom (Medicine) check.
As an action, you can splash the contents of this flask onto a creature within 5 feet of you or throw it up to 20 feet, shattering it on impact. In either case, make a ranged attack against a target creature, treating the holy water as an improvised weapon. If the target is a fiend or undead, it takes 2d6 radiant damage.
A cleric or paladin may create holy water by performing a special ritual. The ritual takes 1 hour to perform, uses 25 gp worth of powdered silver, and requires the caster to expend a 1st-level spell slot.
When you use your action to set it, this trap forms a saw-toothed steel ring that snaps shut when a creature steps on a pressure plate in the center. The trap is affixed by a heavy chain to an immobile object, such as a tree or a spike driven into the ground. A creature that steps on the plate must succeed on a DC 13 Dexterity saving throw or take 1d4 piercing damage and stop moving. Thereafter, until the creature breaks free of the trap, its movement is limited by the length of the chain (typically 3 feet long). A creature can use its action to make a DC 13 Strength check, freeing itself or another creature within its reach on a success. Each failed check deals 1 piercing damage to the trapped creature.
A lamp casts bright light in a 15-foot radius and dim light for an additional 30 feet. Once lit, it burns for 6 hours on a flask (1 pint) of oil.
A bullseye lantern casts bright light in a 60-foot cone and dim light for an additional 60 feet. Once lit, it burns for 6 hours on a flask (1 pint) of oil.
A hooded lantern casts bright light in a 30-foot radius and dim light for an additional 30 feet. Once lit, it burns for 6 hours on a flask (1 pint) of oil. As an action, you can lower the hood, reducing the light to dim light in a 5-foot radius.
A key is provided with the lock. Without the key, a creature proficient with thieves’ tools can pick this lock with a successful DC 15 Dexterity check. Your GM may decide that better locks are available for higher prices.
This lens allows a closer look at small objects. It is also useful as a substitute for flint and steel when starting fires. Lighting a fire with a magnifying glass requires light as bright as sunlight to focus, tinder to ignite, and about 5 minutes for the fire to ignite. A magnifying glass grants advantage on any ability check made to appraise or inspect an item that is small or highly detailed.
These metal restraints can bind a Small or Medium creature. Escaping the manacles requires a successful DC 20 Dexterity check. Breaking them requires a successful DC 20 Strength check. Each set of manacles comes with one key. Without the key, a creature proficient with thieves’ tools can pick the manacles’ lock with a successful DC 15 Dexterity check. Manacles have 15 hit points.
This tin box contains a cup and simple cutlery. The box clamps together, and one side can be used as a cooking pan and the other as a plate or shallow bowl.
Oil usually comes in a clay flask that holds 1 pint. As an action, you can splash the oil in this flask onto a creature within 5 feet of you or throw it up to 20 feet, shattering it on impact. Make a ranged attack against a target creature or object, treating the oil as an improvised weapon. On a hit, the target is covered in oil. If the target takes any fire damage before the oil dries (after 1 minute), the target takes an additional 5 fire damage from the burning oil. You can also pour a flask of oil on the ground to cover a 5-foot-square area, provided that the surface is level. If lit, the oil burns for 2 rounds and deals 5 fire damage to any creature that enters the area or ends its turn in the area. A creature can take this damage only once per turn.
You can use the poison in this vial to coat one slashing or piercing weapon or up to three pieces of ammunition. Applying the poison takes an action. A creature hit by the poisoned weapon or ammunition must make a DC 10 Constitution saving throw or take 1d4 poison damage. Once applied, the poison retains potency for 1 minute before drying.
Potion of Healing
A character who drinks the magical red fluid in this vial regains 2d4 + 2 hit points. Drinking or administering a potion takes an action.
A cloth or leather pouch can hold up to 20 sling bullets or 50 blowgun needles, among other things. A compartmentalized pouch for holding spell components is called a component pouch.
A quiver can hold up to 20 arrows.
You can use a portable ram to break down doors. When doing so, you gain a +4 bonus on the Strength check. One other character can help you use the ram, giving you advantage on this check.
Rations consist of dry foods suitable for extended travel, including jerky, dried fruit, hardtack, and nuts.
Rope, whether made of hemp or silk, has 2 hit points and can be burst with a DC 17 Strength check.
A scale includes a small balance, pans, and a suitable assortment of weights up to 2 pounds. With it, you can measure the exact weight of small objects, such as raw precious metals or trade goods, to help determine their worth.
Essential for wizards, a spellbook is a leather-bound tome with 100 blank vellum pages suitable for recording spells.
A character can use a spellcasting focus in place of the material components specified for a spell, except for those components that have a specific cost (as indicated in a spell’s description).
Arcane Focus. A sorcerer, warlock, or wizard can use an orb, a crystal, a rod, a specially constructed staff, a wand-like length of wood, or some similar item—designed to channel the power of arcane spells.
Druidic Focus. A druid or ranger might use a sprig of mistletoe or holly, a wand or scepter made of yew or another special wood, a staff drawn whole out of a living tree, or a totem object incorporating feathers, fur, bones, and teeth from sacred animals.
Holy Symbol. A cleric or paladin might use an amulet depicting a symbol representing a deity, the same symbol carefully engraved or inlaid as an emblem on a shield, or a tiny box holding a fragment of a sacred relic.
Objects viewed through a spyglass are magnified to twice their size.
A simple and portable canvas shelter, a tent sleeps two.
This small container holds flint, fire steel, and tinder (usually dry cloth soaked in light oil) used to kindle a fire. Using it to light a torch—or anything else with abundant, exposed fuel—takes an action. Lighting any other fire takes 1 minute.
A torch burns for 1 hour, providing bright light in a 20-foot radius and dim light for an additional 20 feet. If you make a melee attack with a burning torch and hit, it deals 1 fire damage.
You live in inhumane conditions. With no place to call home, you shelter wherever you can, sneaking into barns, huddling in old crates, and relying on the good graces of people better off than you. A wretched lifestyle presents abundant dangers. Violence, disease, and hunger follow you wherever you go. Other wretched people covet your armor, weapons, and adventuring gear, which represent a fortune by their standards. You are beneath the notice of most people.
You live in a leaky stable, a mud-floored hut just outside town, or a vermin-infested boarding house in the worst part of town. You have shelter from the elements, but you live in a desperate and often violent environment, in places rife with disease, hunger, and misfortune. You are beneath the notice of most people, and you have few legal protections. Most people at this lifestyle level have suffered some terrible setback. They might be disturbed, marked as exiles, or suffer from disease.
A poor lifestyle means going without the comforts available in a stable community. Simple food and lodgings, threadbare clothing, and unpredictable conditions result in a sufficient, though probably unpleasant, experience. Your accommodations might be a room in a flophouse or in the common room above a tavern. You benefit from some legal protections, but you still have to contend with violence, crime, and disease. People at this lifestyle level tend to be unskilled laborers, costermongers, peddlers, thieves, mercenaries, and other disreputable types.
A modest lifestyle keeps you out of the slums and ensures that you can maintain your equipment. You live in an older part of town, renting a room in a boarding house, inn, or temple. You don’t go hungry or thirsty, and your living conditions are clean, if simple. Ordinary people living modest lifestyles include soldiers with families, laborers, students, priests, hedge wizards, and the like.
Choosing a comfortable lifestyle means that you can afford nicer clothing and can easily maintain your equipment. You live in a small cottage in a middle-class neighborhood or in a private room at a fine inn. You associate with merchants, skilled tradespeople, and military officers.
Choosing a wealthy lifestyle means living a life of luxury, though you might not have achieved the social status associated with the old money of nobility or royalty. You live a lifestyle comparable to that of a highly successful merchant, a favored servant of the royalty, or the owner of a few small businesses. You have respectable lodgings, usually a spacious home in a good part of town or a comfortable suite at a fine inn. You likely have a small staff of servants.
You live a life of plenty and comfort. You move in circles populated by the most powerful people in the community. You have excellent lodgings, perhaps a townhouse in the nicest part of town or rooms in the finest inn. You dine at the best restaurants, retain the most skilled and fashionable tailor, and have servants attending to your every need. You receive invitations to the social gatherings of the rich and powerful, and spend evenings in the company of politicians, guild leaders, high priests, and nobility. You must also contend with the highest levels of deceit and treachery. The wealthier you are, the greater the chance you will be drawn into political intrigue as a pawn or participant.
Skilled hirelings include anyone hired to perform a service that involves a proficiency (including weapon, tool, or skill): a mercenary, artisan, scribe, and so on. The pay shown is a minimum; some expert hirelings require more pay. Untrained hirelings are hired for menial work that requires no particular skill and can include laborers, porters, maids, and similar workers.
Barding is armor designed to protect an animal’s head, neck, chest, and body. Any type of armor shown on the Armor table can be purchased as barding. The cost is four times the equivalent armor made for humanoids, and it weighs twice as much.
A military saddle braces the rider, helping you keep your seat on an active mount in battle. It gives you advantage on any check you make to remain mounted. An exotic saddle is required for riding any aquatic or flying mount.
Keelboats and rowboats are used on lakes and rivers. If going downstream, add the speed of the current (typically 3 miles per hour) to the speed of the vehicle. These vehicles can’t be rowed against any significant current, but they can be pulled upstream by draft animals on the shores. A rowboat weighs 100 pounds, in case adventurers carry it over land.
These special tools include the items needed to pursue a craft or trade. The table shows examples of the most common types of tools, each providing items related to a single craft. Proficiency with a set of artisan’s tools lets you add your proficiency bonus to any ability checks you make using the tools in your craft. Each type of artisan’s tools requires a separate proficiency.
This pouch of cosmetics, hair dye, and small props lets you create disguises that change your physical appearance. Proficiency with this kit lets you add your proficiency bonus to any ability checks you make to create a visual disguise.
This small box contains a variety of papers and parchments, pens and inks, seals and sealing wax, gold and silver leaf, and other supplies necessary to create convincing forgeries of physical documents. Proficiency with this kit lets you add your proficiency bonus to any ability checks you make to create a physical forgery of a document.
This item encompasses a wide range of game pieces, including dice and decks of cards (for games such as Three-Dragon Ante). A few common examples appear on the Tools table, but other kinds of gaming sets exist. If you are proficient with a gaming set, you can add your proficiency bonus to ability checks you make to play a game with that set. Each type of gaming set requires a separate proficiency.
This kit contains a variety of instruments such as clippers, mortar and pestle, and pouches and vials used by herbalists to create remedies and potions. Proficiency with this kit lets you add your proficiency bonus to any ability checks you make to identify or apply herbs. Also, proficiency with this kit is required to create antitoxin and potions of healing.
Several of the most common types of musical instruments are shown on the table as examples. If you have proficiency with a given musical instrument, you can add your proficiency bonus to any ability checks you make to play music with the instrument. Each type of musical instrument requires a separate proficiency.
This set of instruments is used for navigation at sea. Proficiency with navigator’s tools lets you chart a ship’s course and follow navigation charts. In addition, these tools allow you to add your proficiency bonus to any ability check you make to avoid getting lost at sea.
A poisoner’s kit includes the vials, chemicals, and other equipment necessary for the creation of poisons. Proficiency with this kit lets you add your proficiency bonus to any ability checks you make to craft or use poisons.
This set of tools includes a small file, a set of lock picks, a small mirror mounted on a metal handle, a set of narrow-bladed scissors, and a pair of pliers. Proficiency with these tools lets you add your proficiency bonus to any ability checks you make to disarm traps or open locks.
You can use a weapon that has the ammunition property to make a ranged attack only if you have ammunition to fire from the weapon. Each time you attack with the weapon, you expend one piece of ammunition. Drawing the ammunition from a quiver, case, or other container is part of the attack. At the end of the battle, you can recover half your expended ammunition by taking a minute to search the battlefield.
If you use a weapon that has the ammunition property to make a melee attack, you treat the weapon as an improvised weapon. A sling must be loaded to deal any damage when used in this way.
When making an attack with a finesse weapon, you use your choice of your Strength or Dexterity modifier for the attack and damage rolls. You must use the same modifier for both rolls.
Small creatures have disadvantage on attack rolls with heavy weapons. A heavy weapon’s size and bulk make it too large for a Small creature to use effectively.
A light weapon is small and easy to handle, making it ideal for use when fighting with two weapons. See the rules for two-weapon fighting.
Weapons That Require Loading
Because of the time required to load this weapon, you can fire only one piece of ammunition from it when you use an action, bonus action, or reaction to fire it, regardless of the number of attacks you can normally make.
A weapon that can be used to make a ranged attack has a range shown in parentheses after the ammunition or thrown property. The range lists two numbers. The first is the weapon’s normal range in feet, and the second indicates the weapon’s long range. When attacking a target beyond normal range, you have disadvantage on the attack roll. You can’t attack a target beyond the weapon’s long range.
This weapon adds 5 feet to your reach when you attack with it.
A weapon with the special property has unusual rules governing its use, explained in the weapon’s description.
Lance. You have disadvantage when you use a lance to attack a target within 5 feet of you. Also, a lance requires two hands to wield when you aren’t mounted.
Net. A Large or smaller creature hit by a net is restrained until it is freed. A net has no effect on creatures that are formless, or creatures that are Huge or larger. A creature can use its action to make a DC 10 Strength check, freeing itself or another creature within its reach on a success. Dealing 5 slashing damage to the net (AC 10) also frees the creature without harming it, ending the effect and destroying the net.
When you use an action, bonus action, or reaction to attack with a net, you can make only one attack regardless of the number of attacks you can normally make.
If a weapon has the thrown property, you can throw the weapon to make a ranged attack. If the weapon is a melee weapon, you use the same ability modifier for that attack roll and damage roll that you would use for a melee attack with the weapon. For example, if you throw a handaxe, you use your Strength, but if you throw a dagger, you can use either your Strength or your Dexterity, since the dagger has the finesse property.
This weapon requires two hands to use.
This weapon can be used with one or two hands. A damage value in parentheses appears with the property—the damage when the weapon is used with two hands to make a melee attack.
Sometimes characters don’t have their weapons and have to attack with whatever is close at hand. An improvised weapon includes any object you can wield in one or two hands, such as broken glass, a table leg, a frying pan, a wagon wheel, or a dead goblin.
In many cases, an improvised weapon is similar to an actual weapon and can be treated as such. For example, a table leg is akin to a club. At the GM’s option, a character proficient with a weapon can use a similar object as if it were that weapon and use his or her proficiency bonus.
An object that bears no resemblance to a weapon deals 1d4 damage (the GM assigns a damage type appropriate to the object). If a character uses a ranged weapon to make a melee attack, or throws a melee weapon that does not have the thrown property, it also deals 1d4 damage. An improvised thrown weapon has a normal range of 20 feet and a long range of 60 feet.
Some monsters that have immunity or resistance to nonmagical weapons are susceptible to silver weapons, so cautious adventurers invest extra coin to plate their weapons with silver. You can silver a single weapon or ten pieces of ammunition for 100 gp. This cost represents not only the price of the silver, but the time and expertise needed to add silver to the weapon without making it less effective.
Contact poison can be smeared on an object and remains potent until it is touched or washed off. A creature that touches contact poison with exposed skin suffers its effects.
A creature must swallow an entire dose of ingested poison to suffer its effects. The dose can be delivered in food or a liquid. You may decide that a partial dose has a reduced effect, such as allowing advantage on the saving throw or dealing only half damage on a failed save.
These poisons are powders or gases that take effect when inhaled. Blowing the powder or releasing the gas subjects creatures in a 5-foot cube to its effect. The resulting cloud dissipates immediately afterward. Holding one’s breath is ineffective against inhaled poisons, as they affect nasal membranes, tear ducts, and other parts of the body.
Injury poison can be applied to weapons, ammunition, trap components, and other objects that deal piercing or slashing damage and remains potent until delivered through a wound or washed off. A creature that takes piercing or slashing damage from an object coated with the poison is exposed to its effects.
Assassin’s Blood (Ingested)
A creature subjected to this poison must make a DC 10 Constitution saving throw. On a failed save, it takes 6 (1d12) poison damage and is poisoned for 24 hours. On a successful save, the creature takes half damage and isn’t poisoned.
Burnt Othur Fumes (Inhaled)
A creature subjected to this poison must succeed on a DC 13 Constitution saving throw or take 10 (3d6) poison damage, and must repeat the saving throw at the start of each of its turns. On each successive failed save, the character takes 3 (1d6) poison damage. After three successful saves, the poison ends.
Crawler Mucus (Contact)
This poison must be harvested from a dead or incapacitated crawler. A creature subjected to this poison must succeed on a DC 13 Constitution saving throw or be poisoned for 1 minute. The poisoned creature is paralyzed. The creature can repeat the saving throw at the end of each of its turns, ending the effect on itself on a success.
Drow Poison (Injury)
This poison is typically made only by the drow, and only in a place far removed from sunlight. A creature subjected to this poison must succeed on a DC 13 Constitution saving throw or be poisoned for 1 hour. If the saving throw fails by 5 or more, the creature is also unconscious while poisoned in this way. The creature wakes up if it takes damage or if another creature takes an action to shake it awake.
Essence of Ether (Inhaled)
A creature subjected to this poison must succeed on a DC 15 Constitution saving throw or become poisoned for 8 hours. The poisoned creature is unconscious. The creature wakes up if it takes damage or if another creature takes an action to shake it awake.
A creature subjected to this poison must succeed on a DC 15 Constitution saving throw or become poisoned for 1 hour. The poisoned creature is blinded.
Midnight Tears (Ingested)
A creature that ingests this poison suffers no effect until the stroke of midnight. If the poison has not been neutralized before then, the creature must succeed on a DC 17 Constitution saving throw, taking 31 (9d6) poison damage on a failed save, or half as much damage on a successful one.
Oil of Taggit (Contact)
A creature subjected to this poison must succeed on a DC 13 Constitution saving throw or become poisoned for 24 hours. The poisoned creature is unconscious. The creature wakes up if it takes damage.
Pale Tincture (Ingested)
A creature subjected to this poison must succeed on a DC 16 Constitution saving throw or take 3 (1d6) poison damage and become poisoned. The poisoned creature must repeat the saving throw every 24 hours, taking 3 (1d6) poison damage on a failed save. Until this poison ends, the damage the poison deals can’t be healed by any means. After seven successful saving throws, the effect ends and the creature can heal normally.
Purple Worm Poison (Injury)
This poison must be harvested from a dead or incapacitated purple worm. A creature subjected to this poison must make a DC 19 Constitution saving throw, taking 42 (12d6) poison damage on a failed save, or half as much damage on a successful one.
Serpent Venom (Injury)
This poison must be harvested from a dead or incapacitated giant poisonous snake. A creature subjected to this poison must succeed on a DC 11 Constitution saving throw, taking 10 (3d6) poison damage on a failed save, or half as much damage on a successful one.
A creature subjected to this poison must succeed on a DC 15 Constitution saving throw or become poisoned for 4d6 hours. The poisoned creature is incapacitated.
Truth Serum (Ingested)
A creature subjected to this poison must succeed on a DC 11 Constitution saving throw or become poisoned for 1 hour. The poisoned creature can’t knowingly speak a lie, as if under the effect of a zone of truth spell.
Wyvern Poison (Injury)
This poison must be harvested from a dead or incapacitated wyvern. A creature subjected to this poison must make a DC 15 Constitution saving throw, taking 24 (7d6) poison damage on a failed save, or half as much damage on a successful one.